CMC
Magazine

August 1996 http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1996/aug/farref.html


Root Page of Article: Little Italy, Wide World, by Marco Farinelli

Endnotes

  1. Throughout the essay, international is used interchangeably with global.

  2. The definition of culture formulated at UNESCO's World Conference on Cultural Policies, Mexico 1982.

  3. Ishii, Hiroshi, Walls, Jan. In Harasim, Linda M. (1993). Global Networks: Computers and International Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Chapters 8-9.

    While their scope of analysis fundamentally differs, both authors emphasize multicultural aspects which characterize CMC, by drawing on their bicultural Japanese-American experience. In Chapter 9, Global Networking for Local Development: Task Focus and Relationship Focus in cross-cultural Communication, Jan Walls presents a pragmatic view of CMC where, he argues, online interaction better functions as an enrichment to users whose cultural identities are not online: virtual communities do not serve as identification, but rather as an international experience to better accomplish specific local goals. In Chapter 8, Cross-Cultural Communication and Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Iroshi Ishii's effort is directed more towards understanding the dynamics of cross-cultural communications, in order to achieve computer supported cooperative work also applicable to the resolution of international conflicts: in a way, according to the author, successful inter-cultural communications promote a transnational identification in the virtual community. Of relevance to this essay is that both authors realize the need to identify and overcome inter-cultural barriers in order to communicate effectively, be it for a local or global development.

  4. Burgess Yakemovic, K.C. . (16 Jun 1996). Electronic mail message.

  5. Farinelli, Marco. (July 1995). Rough Guide to the Internet: Italy. internet magazine .net, Future Publishing: Bath, UK. Issue Eight.

  6. Kolakowski, Leszek (1990). Modernity on Endless Trial. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  7. Rossney, Robert. Culture Wars. Wired, 3.05. Notoriously the most nationalistic of European nations, France has attempted governmental control over American imports by tightening restrictions on non-European cultural products (films, television shows, and music); this has also been pursued in coordination with the European Union. The pitfalls of such a centralist policy appear the more evident in a time of globalizing communications and interactive media. Such an attitude has prompted a nationalistic reaction on the part of the American intelligentsia to show the extent of penetration of US culture into the French territory, and how this affects the Eurobusiness.

  8. Negroponte, Nicholas. (9.1.94). Why Europe Is So Unwired. Wired 2.09.

References

  • Fredrick, H. H. (1993) Global Communication & International Relations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
  • Harasim, L. M. (1993). Global networks: Computers and International Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


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