Coming Out of the Close
Decent if Sparse OverviewAdmittedly, all this can be found elsewhere, in much greater detail and more complete form. Still, Edwards' context gives a new perspective that seems worthwhile to me.
For example, Edwards notes two trends of the (mostly failed) goals of artificial intelligence:
Edwards reveals the different philosophies of the two approaches:
Where the microworlds approach tried to build up to reality by gradually expanding a simulated world within the machine, expert systems workers carved reality up into a series of tiny "domains," capturing each one separately and worrying about recombining them later. Expert systems differed from microworlds in their focus on real-world problems, but they still reflected the closed-world belief in the reducibility of knowledge to a machine-like automatic system.