Development Processes

  1. Planning: define target audience, purpose, objectives, and policies for information development and use.
  2. Analysis: check technical construction of web with validation tools; evaluate information consistency and verify correctness of domain information.
  3. Design: separate information into page-sized chunks; connect pages along routes of use and user thinking; provide information, context, and navigation cues; create a consistent look and feel.
  4. Implementation: create an extendible directory and file structure; use HTML tools where helpful; use templates for supporting consistent look and feel; check implementation in various browsers.
  5. Promotion: target publicity releases for general Web audiences, potential users, and current users; follow online community norms and practices; innovatively connect with users to meet their needs.
  6. Innovation: continuously and creatively work for improvement to meet user needs; use testing, evaluation, and focus groups to shift and change web's content as user needs change.

HTML Reference

The following table summarizes some of the most commonly used HTML tags. User-supplied values are displayed in italics; choices, where available, are separated by a vertical bar |.

The levels of HTML summarized include statements from:

2part of the HTML 2.0 specification
3part of the HTML 3.0 or higher (e.g., 3.2) specifications
NHTML extension for Netscape browsers

LevelHTML Statementexplanation
Document Structure
2<HTML></HTML> start and end of HTML document
2<HEAD></HEAD> document meta-information start and end
2<BODY></BODY> content of document displayed by browser
Document Meta Tags
2<TITLE></TITLE> document title; goes in HEAD
2<BASE Href="URL"> base reference URL of document; goes in HEAD
2<LINK Rev="made" Href="mailto:user@host.domain"> user@host.domain wrote the document; goes in HEAD
2user's text the user's text consists of ASCII characters and is displayed with whitespace (line breaks, extra spaces between words) removed
2&#code special character with numeric code or ISO Latin-1 name given as code
2<!-- comment --> comment; not displayed by browser
2<A Href="URL">Hotspot</A> anchor linking Hotspot text to document URL
2<A Name="Jump">Text</A> anchor with name Jump associated with Text
2<A Href="URL#Jump">Hotspot</A> anchor with jump from Hotspot to anchor named Jump in document URL
Lists and Blocks of Text
2<UL></UL> unordered list (items marked with <LI>)
2<OL></OL> ordered list (items marked with <LI>)
2<DL></DL> definition list (terms marked with <DT>, definitions marked with <DD>)
2<BLOCKQUOTE></BLOCKQUOTE> extended quotation
2<ADDRESS></ADDRESS> address; often used for document author identification
2<H1></H1>... <H6></H6> headings from level 1 (major) to 6 (minor)
2<HR> horizontal rule
N<HR Size="thickness"> horizontal rule that is thickness pixels high
2<BR> line break
2<P> paragraph start
3<P Align="left|center|right"></P> paragraph start and end, with text aligned left, center, or right
Physical Character Formatting
2<B></B> bold
2<I></I> italic
2<TT></TT> typewriter
preformatted text; 
preserves line breaks
3<SUP></SUP> superscript
3<SUB></SUB> subscript
N<CENTER></CENTER> centers text
N<BLINK></BLINK> rendered as blinking text
N<FONT Size="size"></FONT> font set to size, ranging from 1 to 7
N<FONT Size="+|-step"></FONT> font size stepped up (+) or down (-) by step
N<FONT Color="#RRGGBB"></FONT> font set to color given by hexadecimal red, green, and blue values, RRGGBB
Logical Character Formatting
2<CITE></CITE> citation
2<CODE></CODE> computer source code
2<EM></EM> emphasized
2<KBD></KBD> keyboard entry
2<SAMP></SAMP> text sample
2<STRONG></STRONG> strongly emphasized
2<VAR></VAR> variable name
2<IMG Src="URL"> inserts image at URL into document
2<IMG Src="URL" Alt="string"> displays string for non-graphical browsers instead of image
2<IMG Src="URL" Align="top|bottom|middle"> sets alignment of text after image
2<IMG Src="URLi" Href="URLm" Ismap> makes image at URL given by URLi a map, defined by a map file given at URLm
N, 3<IMG Src="URL" Width="width" Height="height"> sets image to be width pixels wide by height pixels high
2<FORM Action="URL Method="get|post"></FORM> a Form with a gateway program at URL and using a method
2<INPUT Name="name" Type="checkbox |hidden |image |password |radio |reset |submit |text"> Input element with a specific type and symbolic name, name
2<TEXTAREA Name="name" Rows="R" Cols="C"> Text area (lines of editable text) with symbolic name, name and R rows and C columns visible at a time
2<SELECT Name="name" Size="N" Multiple> Select element with symbolic name, name, N selections visible at a time; and multiple selections possible; selections defined using OPTION
2<OPTION Value="string"> Option element used with SELECT; with returned value string
3<TABLE Border></TABLE> start and stop of a Table with a border
3<CAPTION Align="top|bottom"></CAPTION> start and stop of the caption, placed on the top or bottom of the table
3<TR></TR> start and stop of a row
3<TH Colspan="C" Rowspan="R"></TH> start and stop of a header cell spanning C columns and R rows
3<TD Colspan="C" Rowspan="R"></TD> start and stop of a data cell spanning C columns and R rows
3<TH|TD Align="left|right|center"></TH|TD> sets horizontal alignment of item in header or data cell
3<TH|TD VAlign="top|middle|bottom"></TH|TD> sets vertical alignment of item in header or data cell
N<TH|TD Width="width"></TH|TD> sets the horizontal width of header or data cell by width, in pixels
Netscape Body Extensions
N<BODY Background="URL"> sets background texture to image at URL
N<BODY BGcolor="#RRGGBB"> sets background to color with red, green, blue values given by hexadecimal RR, GG, BB
N<BODY Text="#RRGGBB"> sets text color
N<BODY Link="#RRGGBB"> sets unvisited links color
N<BODY VLink="#RRGGBB"> sets visited links color
N<BODY ALink="#RRGGBB"> sets active links color
N2.0<FRAMESET Rows="number[ | % | *] | *,..." Cols="number[ | % | *] | *,..."></FRAMESET> brackets FRAME elements in an HTML document substituting for the BODY element; with the list of comma-separated values defining each column or row size: number in pixels, or just * to fill in rest, or number followed by % or * to share the rest of the space;
N2.0<FRAME Src="URL" Name="text" Marginwidth="value" Marginheight="value" Scrolling="yes|no|auto" Noresize > defines frames with document at URL and with name text
N2.0<NOFRAMES></NOFRAMES> brackets content to be rendered in browsers which do not render frames
N2.0<A Target="frame_name|_self|_parent|_top|_blank"> additional attribute of anchor element to define in which frame anchor content will be displayed

Web Reference

This information is from the book, HTML 3.2 & CGI Unleashed, Professional Reference Edition, by John December, Mark Ginsburg, and chapter contributors in key areas. Indianapolis: Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-57521-177-7; Macmillan Computer Publishing 1(800)428-5331. For more information see the book support web at

This document Copyright © 1995-1996 by John December. All Rights Reserved. You can distribute unaltered copies of this document for free.

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